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Barrett’s Esophagus

Barrett’s Esophagus is a complication of GERD. It has to do with metaplasia of lower esophagus mucosa from stratified squamous epithelium that normally lines the distal esophagus to non-ciliated columnar epithelium (glandular type: protective type of epithelial...

Esophageal Spastic Disorder

Esophageal spastic disorders that are idiopathic abnormalities of neural processes of the esophagus. They can be categorized into 3 types. Diffuse esophageal spasm (DES) Hypercontracting esophageal disorder of hypertensive peristalsis (nutcracker esophagus)...

Achalasia

Achalasia is the idiopathic motility disorder characterized by incomplete relaxation of the Lower Esophageal sphincter (LES) in response to swallowing. This is a functional esophageal obstruction. Recall that the muscles of the esophagus are as follows: Upper third...

Zenker’s diverticulum

Zenker’s diverticulum is a condition where there is outpouching of the posterior pharyngeal constrictor muscles. It is one of the three types of esophageal diverticulum. It is most commonly seen in elderly men, usually more than 60 years old, often 75 years...